Monday, April 30, 2012

Rules of Residence

The rules of residence reflect the general social,economic ,social and cultural conditions of the society.

Patrilocality- When men contributes most to the economy and do most of the work,patrilocality is applied.Societies which are based on agriculture or do hunting require services of menfolk on a large scale.It is men in these societies who own land and other types of property.They require effective political organisation in order to control.

Matrilocality-When women contribute to the society and economy and do most of the work.In some communities women inherit all the property including land.They donot move away from the land even after their marriage but ask their husbands to reside with them and assist them in their economic enterprise. The absence of certain negative conditions like warfare,political organisation and polygamous marriges all favour matrilocal residence.

Bilocality-When equal importance is given to men and women in economy with proper division of labour between the two sexes such that they complement each other through their roles.The inheritance and ownership rules are also balanced between men and women in such societies.The societies which favor bilocal residence have relatively peaceful conditions with negliglible warfare.

Matri-patrilocality-This transitory rule of residence is associated with the occurence and regular practice of  marriage by service.The newly wed couple stay with the bride's family for the first few years  and later on shift to the bridegroom's place of residence.The service put in by the bridegroom through continuous physical labor at the bride's family land assumes the form of a bride-price or bride wealth paid by groom to the bride's family.

Avunculocality- The presence of a rule of avunculocal residence is the most common feature among several matrilineal societies.This is because men inherit the properties of their maternal uncles.For purposes of group membership alone,matrilineality may be used while for the purposes of inheritance and succession avunvulocality is mainly recognized.

Neolocality- Neolocal residence is related to the presence of money or commercial economy in modern industrialized societies.Money seems to allow a couple to live on their independently without having to depend on other kin for their living.Neolocality is associated with Nuclear family organization and not with non money economy and with acute food shortage.

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