By 1500 B.C.E. Indo-Aryan tribes had established themselves in the Punjab region and had composed most of the hymns in Hinduism’s oldest text, the Rig-Veda.
That text is a collection of more than 1,000 hymns addressed to various Vedic gods.The society described in the hymns of the Rig-Veda was nomadic and pastoral.
Indo-Aryan society was divided into three classes: kings, priests, and commoners. Aryan life centered on cattle, horses, and warfare. This can be seen in the hymns’ many metaphors involving cows, in their use of cattle as a sign of wealth, and in the special energy with which they condemn those who steal or threaten to steal Aryan herds.
Indo-Aryans protected their herds through warfare. This was a warrior culture whose major warrior god, Indra, was shown fighting against the “enemies of the Aryans,”