Gender expectations are learned and culturally imposed through a variety of social mechanisms, including socialization, situational constraints, and commercialization of gender ideals.
Socialization theorists argue that an undetermined yet significant portion of male-female differences are products of the ways in which males and females are socialized.
Another powerful mechanism for conveying gender expectations is the commercialization of gender ideals—the process of introducing products into the market by using advertising and sales campaigns that promise consumers they will achieve masculine and feminine ideals if they buy and use the products.
Structural constraints the established and customary rules, policies, and day-to-day practices that affect a person’s life chances channel people’s behavior in desired directions.
Structural constraints push men and women into jobs that correspond with society’s ideals for sex-appropriate work.